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A polyamide is a polymer containing monomers joined by peptide bonds. They can occur both naturally, examples being proteins, such as wool and silk, and can be made artificially, examples being Nylon, Kevlar and sodium poly(aspartate).
Production from monomers
The amide link is produced from the condensation reaction of an amino group and a carboxylic acid or acid chloride group. A small molecule, usually water, ammonia or hydrogen chloride, is eliminated.
The amino group and the carboxylic acid group can be on the same monomer, or the polymer can be constituted of two different bifunctional monomers, one with two amino groups, the other with two carboxylic acid or acid chloride groups.
Amino Acids can be taken as examples of single monomer (if the difference between R groups is ignored) reacting with identical molecules to form a polyamide:
Kevlar is made from two different monomers which continuously alternate to form the polymer:
Polyethylenes: Polyethylene (PE), Low density polyethylene (LDPE), High density polyethylene (HDPE), Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), Crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)
Other Polyolefins: Polypropylene (PP), Biaxially-oriented polypropylene, Polybutylene (PB), Polyisobutene (PIB)
Polyacrylates: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polymethyl acrylate (PMA), hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), Sodium polyacrylate
Polystyrenes: Polystyrene (PS), High impact polystyrene (HIPS), Extruded polystyrene (XPS), Expanded Polystyrene
Polyesters: Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
Polysulfones: Polysulfone (PSU), Polyarylsulfone (PAS), Polyethersulfone PES, Polyphenylsulfone (PPS)
Polyamides: Polyamide (PA), polyphthalamide (PPA), Bismaleimide (BMI), urea formaldehyde (UF)
Polyurethanes: Polyurethane (PU), Polyisocyanurate (PIR)
Chloropolymers: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Polyvinylidene dichloride (PVDC)
(Chloro)fluoropolymers: Fluoropolymer (FE), Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), Polychlorotrifluoroethlyene (PCTFE), Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethlyene (ECTFE)
Other Homopolymers: Polycarbonate (PC), Polylactic acid (PLA), Polyacrylamide (PAM), Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)
Other Copolymers: Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), Polybutadiene acrylonitrile (PBAN)
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